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Surplus teeth and complications in their extraction

surplus teeth

Supernumerary teeth are considered a dental problem which can, in turn, give rise to various pathologies including malocclusion.

The incidence on the world population of supernumerary teeth is included in adults and therefore in permanent dentition between 0.15% and 3.9% in Caucasians and higher than 3% in Mongolian individuals.

What is the origin of supernumerary teeth?

The origin of the development of supernumerary teeth is still not very clear despite some hypotheses have been formulated that would explain the etiology of the phenomenon. Among the scientific hypotheses are:

  • dental gem dichotomy;
  • hyperactivity of the dental lamina;
  • combination of genetic and environmental factors.

In some cases, the development of surplus teeth is the consequence of other pathologies such as:

  • cleft lip and cleft lip and palate;
  • cleidocranial dysostosis;
  • Gardner’s syndrome.

What determines the presence of supernumerary teeth

The presence of supernumerary teeth in the arch can cause some complications in the patient:

  • malocclusion;
  • cyst formation;
  • periodontitis;
  • damage to adjacent teeth.

In more complex clinical cases, in which supernumerary teeth cause excessive complications, their extraction is envisaged.

Surplus teeth: complications and extraction

In a study published in August 2020 in the scientific journal Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, some researchers highlighted the complications associated with the presence of supernumerary teeth and their surgical treatment.

The research involved medical records and radiographs of patients undergoing surgical extraction of supernumerary teeth, in particular 705 patients who underwent extraction of 1036 extra teeth.

The relationships between the patient’s age, sex, anatomical characteristics of supernumerary teeth and the presence and type of complications were studied: rotation, delayed eruption of the adjacent tooth, formation of cysts.

Complications associated with the patient’s age, type of dentition, tuberculous shape and horizontal development of the eruption of supernumerary teeth occurred in 55.6% of patients.

Conditions that must always be evaluated before proceeding with the extraction or any other dental treatment plan.

The first dental visit and the evaluation phase of the single clinical case are essential elements in the therapy. For dental problems there are no standard solutions that can be suitable for every type of patient. Each clinical case must be treated with specific therapies to avoid complications and have effective and lasting solutions over time.

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