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Periodontal survey: how the severity of periodontitis is measured

periodontal survey

The diagnosis of periodontitis is quite frequent during dental visits, it is a pathology that can have different degrees of severity, the periodontal survey is the clinical examination to measure the stage of the disease.

The parameters of a periodontal survey

Periodontitis is scientifically defined as the chronic inflammation of the gums that attacks the periodontium and the bone periodontal surveyadjacent maxillary. The evolution of the pathology involves the complete destruction of the periodontal ligament up to the extreme consequence of tooth loss.

In the diagnosis of periodontitis it is important to verify as soon as possible the evolutionary stage of the disease, the periodontal survey is precisely the examination that allows to assess the severity of the periodontitis and the state of the periodontal ligament.

The evaluation through the periodontal survey measures:

  • extension of gum recession;
  • depth of periodontal pockets;
  • degree of tissue bleeding;
  • tooth mobility.

How do you conduct a periodontal survey?

The dentist proceeds to the examination through the use of a millimeter periodontal probe, able to provide objective evidence, being a standardized dental instrument.

The periodontal probe is made to slide along the entire circumference of the tooth and the findings are made by the dentist in standardized points. The value of the periodontal survey for the following positions is in fact recorded and reported in the clinical record:

  • mesio-vestibular
  • center-vestibular
  • disto-vestibular
  • mesio-lingual
  • center-lingual
  • disto-lingual

The periodontal probing also measures the loss of horizontal interradicular attachment that involves the periodontal probefurcation or the area of the molar and premolar (pluriradicular) teeth in which the roots divide away from the common trunk.

The parameters that establish the severity of the loss range from grade 1 to grade 3.

  • grade 1: the horizontal loss of supporting tissues is less than one third of the width of the tooth;
  • grade 2: the horizontal loss of the supporting tissues exceeds the width of the tooth by a third;
  • grade 3: horizontal loss of supporting tissues affects the whole part of the furcation.

Measurement of tooth mobility

The eventual mobility of the tooth as a consequence of periodontal disease must also be measured with an objective examination. Tooth mobility can be assessed according to the following parameters:

Class 0: physiological and natural mobility;
Class 1: slight shifts are noted on the horizontal axis;
Class 2: obvious displacements on the horizontal axis;
Class 3: mobility both on the vertical axis and on the horizontal axis with obvious functional problems.

Classification of periodontitis

The set of data collected, diagnostic imaging tests and other evaluation criteria will allow the dentist to establish the degree of evolution of periodontal disease.

We can distinguish eight types of clinical conditions related to periodontitis:

  • Gum disease;
  • Chronic periodontitis;
  • Aggressive periodontitis;
  • Periodontitis as a consequence of systemic diseases;
  • Necrotizing periodontal diseases;
  • Periodontal abscesses;
  • Periodontitis associated with endodontic lesions;
  • Deformity and acquired or developmental conditions.

Each clinical condition includes a specific dental treatment, which is why the diagnosis phase is essential.

Since periodontitis is an infection that, if neglected, leads to the loss of teeth, we always recommend that you set up periodic visits to prevent irreparable damage. Do not hesitate to contact us to arrange a first visit,

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