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Dental implants. Main parts and components

Implantology is the technique that allows you to replace lost natural teeth with artificial ones by inserting dental implants. This consolidated and safe practice, as well as extremely long lasting, is now the first choice for anyone who wants to solve this type of problem. But let’s see now in more detail what the elements and individual components of the dental implants are, which determine their final structure.

First of all, it is good to underline that an implantology intervention can be carried out thanks to the phenomenon of osseointegration, that is, taking advantage of the ability of the connective bone tissue to regenerate itself and therefore fix itself around the newly positioned implant; this passage guarantees the stability of the implant over time. However, this process takes a few months. To fix fixed teeth immediately, it is necessary to have a good primary stability, that is, make sure that the implant fits adequately to the bone and does not move from there even if osseointegration has not yet taken place.

Plant-abutment-CoronasThe main elements of an implant are definitely the screw, which is the real implant, scientifically called fixture, the abutment, or the transmucosal stump that is the connection between the implant and the prosthesis, and the prosthesis that can be a entire arch, a bridge or a single crown.

The most common implants are usually composed of the threaded screw, conical or possibly cylindrical, which, in its surface part, is treated with acids, sandblasting, laser or even plasma spray, so as to be more rough and therefore able to fix better to the maxillary bone thanks to the friction it generates with the latter.

The abutment, on the other hand, also called the transmucosal component, because it passes through the entire gingival tissue, can be considered an integral part of the fixture (screw), sometimes it is totally integrated into the implant. If, on the other hand, the two elements are separate and must be connected to each other (more widespread structure), then they are joined by a particular system that allows hooking, which can be both fixed and adjustable, so as to make the structure modular and easily adaptable to the patient’s anatomy. The abutment allows to compensate for any inclination of the implant which, to be better fixed, could be crooked.

overdentureIn addition, there are also mini-implants, also called mini-screws, used to give greater stability to mobile prostheses, through overdenture attachment methods, which provides titanium implants with bar or spherical head.

What are the materials used for dental implant components?

We have seen and described the implants and all the parts that make them up, with an eye also to mini-implants.

Now let’s see what are the most used materials in the creation of the various parts.

Of course, the material par excellence is titanium, considered adequate and better than others because it has characteristics that give it excellent resistance to stress and a high bio-inertia, or that property that some materials have to interface well and without problems with biological systems . As we have already said, many modern implants also have a surface structured in order to increase the osseointegration capacity of the implant inside the jaw.

Different types of materials are used for the crown: it is possible to rely on classic ceramic or composite materials which, thanks to continuous improvements, are more resistant than ceramic and with an excellent quality aesthetic result.

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