Dental caries (from the Latin careo, “to be deprived”) is a degenerative disease of the hard tissues of the tooth (enamel, dentin) on an infectious basis, which originates from the surface and proceeds in depth, up to the dental pulp. This is caused by the common microorganisms present in the oral cavity, mainly those adhering to the tooth in the form of bacterial plaque, which if not kept under control through the common oral hygiene practices, or in the case of lowering of the immune defenses, are able to dissolve the mineral matrix and organic which constitutes the tooth, creating cavitated lesions. The main symptom is pain, which appears often only when the process has gone very deep, involving the pulp organ (pulpitis). The treatment involves the removal of the infected tissue and its replacement with suitable material (conservative dentistry), and, in the case of advanced pulp involvement, the removal of the pulp tissue and its replacement (endodontics).

Dental fillings

The choice of material for the filling depends on the nature of the defect. The development of adhesive fillings with the use of the acid-etching technique has led, in the field of obturation therapy, to the rapid development of new aesthetic bio-materials. Until then, amalgam was used as a filling material in the area of posterior teeth. Today, in addition to the aesthetic bio-material that restores the color and shape of the original tooth, inlays (aesthetic fillings milled with CAD / CAM technology from a single ceramic block) are also used, which allow reliable, aesthetic and long-lasting reconstructions.

Cavitation classes

The residual spaces that are created as a result of the preparation, the cavities, are divided, according to the location of the carious lesion, into five classes. This classification is important from a practical point of view for the purposes of describing the filling.

  • Class 1 Cavities affecting the furrows and blind forams
  • Class 2 Cavities located on the proximal surfaces of molars and premolars
  • Class 3 Cavities located on the proximal surfaces of the incisors and canines without affecting the incisal angle
  • Class 4 Cavities located on the proximal surfaces of the incisors and canines with involvement of the incisal angle
  • Class 5 Cavities affecting the collar area